Osteitis fibrosa is a common bone injury associated with secondary hyperparathyroidism (2(o)HPT). NPS R-568 is a phenylalkylamine derivative that acts as an agonist at the cell-surface Ca2+ receptor ("calcimimetic") and inhibits parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion. In the present study, we tested whether NPS R-568 could ameliorate osteitis fibrosa in partially nephrectomized (Nx) rats with 2(o)HPT. Six months after surgery, Nx rats had developed mild but progressive 2(o)HPT and osteitis fibrosa. Two groups of Nx rats received NPS R-568 (3 and 30 mg/kg body wt x day) by daily gavage for 30 days, which led to a dose-related decrease in serum PTH levels and to a marked reduction in peritrabecular fibrosis (0.96 +/- 0.49% to < 0.1%). Furthermore, 2(o)HPT was associated with decreases in volumetric cortical bone mineral density (vCtBMD) and in cortical bone stiffness at the femoral midshaft. NPS R-568 significantly restored the deficits in vCtBMD and stiffness. These results indicate that NPS R-568 has beneficial effects on bones with osteitis fibrosa by normalizing serum PTH levels.