Background: Eradication of Helicobacter pylori cures and prevents the relapse of duodenal ulceration and also results in histological resolution of chronic active gastritis.
Aim: To compare four treatment regimens lasting seven days of a proton pump inhibitor and two antibiotics in the eradication of H pylori.
Patients: Men or women with H pylori positive duodenal ulceration or gastritis, or both.
Methods: A single blind, prospectively randomised, parallel group, comparative, multicentre study. After a positive CLO test, patients underwent histology, H pylori culture, and a 13C urea breath test to confirm H pylori status. Treatment with one of four regimens: LAC, LAM, LCM, or OAM, where L is 30 mg of lansoprazole twice daily, A is 1 g of amoxycillin twice daily, M is 400 mg of metronidazole twice daily, C is 250 mg of clarithromycin twice daily, and O is 20 mg of omeprazole twice daily, was assigned randomly. A follow up breath test was done at least 28 days after completing treatment.
Results: H pylori eradication (intention to treat) was 104/121 (86.0%) with LAC, 87/131 (66.4%) with LAM, 103/118 (87.3%) with LCM, and 94/126 (74.6%) with OAM. There was a significant difference (p < 0.001) in the proportion of patients in whom eradication was successful between LAC and LCM when compared with LAM, but no significant difference (p = 0.15) between LAM and OAM. Metronidazole resistance before treatment was identified as a significant prognostic factor with regard to eradication of H pylori. The regimens which contained metronidazole were significantly less effective than those without metronidazole in the presence of pretreatment resistant H pylori. There was no difference among the treatment groups with regard to the incidence and severity of adverse events reported.
Conclusions: All four treatment regimens were safe and effective in eradicating H pylori in the patient population studied. LAC was the most efficacious treatment in patients with pretreatment metronidazole resistant H pylori, and was significantly better than LAM and OAM in this group of patients.