Systematic direct angioplasty and stent-supported direct angioplasty therapy for cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction: in-hospital and long-term survival

J Am Coll Cardiol. 1998 Feb;31(2):294-300. doi: 10.1016/s0735-1097(97)00496-8.


Objectives: This prospective observational study was conducted to examine the apparent impact of a systematic direct percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) strategy on mortality in a series of 66 consecutive patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) complicated by cardiogenic shock, and to analyze the predictors of outcome after successful direct PTCA.

Background: Previous studies have reported encouraging results with PTCA in patients with AMI complicated by cardiogenic shock, but a biased case selection for PTCA may have heavily influenced the observed outcomes.

Methods: All patients admitted with AMI were considered eligible for direct PTCA, including those with the most profound shock, and no upper age limit was used. The treatment protocol also included stenting of the infarct-related artery for a poor or suboptimal angiographic result after conventional PTCA.

Results: Between January 1995 and March 1997, 364 consecutive patients underwent direct PTCA, and in 66 patients AMI was complicated by cardiogenic shock. In patients with cardiogenic shock, direct PTCA had a success rate of 94%; an optimal angiographic result was achieved in 85%; primary stenting of the infarct-related artery was accomplished in 47%; and the in-hospital mortality rate was 26%. Univariate analysis showed that patient age, chronic coronary occlusion and completeness of revascularization were significantly related to in-hospital mortality. The mean follow-up period was 16 +/- 8 months. Survival rate at 6 months was 71%. Comparison of event-free survival in patients with a stented or nonstented infarct-related artery suggests an initial and long-term benefit of primary stenting.

Conclusions: Systematic direct PTCA, including stent-supported PTCA, can establish a Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) grade 3 flow in the great majority of patients presenting with AMI and early cardiogenic shock. High performance criteria, including new devices such as coronary stents, should be considered in randomized trials where mechanical revascularization therapy is being tested.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary*
  • Bias
  • Coronary Angiography
  • Coronary Circulation
  • Coronary Disease / complications
  • Coronary Vessels / pathology
  • Disease-Free Survival
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Forecasting
  • Hospital Mortality
  • Humans
  • Italy / epidemiology
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Myocardial Infarction / complications*
  • Myocardial Infarction / diagnostic imaging
  • Myocardial Infarction / therapy
  • Patient Selection
  • Prospective Studies
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
  • Shock, Cardiogenic / etiology
  • Shock, Cardiogenic / mortality
  • Shock, Cardiogenic / therapy*
  • Stents*
  • Survival Rate
  • Treatment Outcome