Mice lacking the mu-opioid receptor (MOR) gene have been successfully developed by homologous recombination and these animals show complete loss of analgesic responses to morphine as well as loss of place-preference activity and physical dependence on this opioid. We report here quantitative autoradiographic mapping of opioid receptor subtypes in the brains of wild-type, heterozygous and homozygous mutant mice to demonstrate the deletion of the MOR gene, to investigate the possible existence of any mu-receptor subtypes derived from a different gene and to determine any modification in the expression of other opioid receptors. Mu-, delta-, kappa1- and total kappa-receptors, in adjacent coronal sections in fore- and midbrain and in sagittal sections, were labelled with [3H]DAMGO (D-Ala2-MePhe4-Gly-ol5 enkephalin), [3H]DELTI (D-Ala2 deltorphinI), [3H]CI-977 and [3H]bremazocine (in the presence of DAMGO and DPDPE) respectively. In heterozygous mice, deficient in one copy of the MOR gene, mu-receptors were detectable throughout the brain at about 50% compared to wild-type. In brains from mu-knockout mice there were no detectable mu-receptors in any brain regions and no evidence for mu-receptors derived from another gene. Delta-, kappa1- and total kappa-receptor binding was present in all brain regions in mutant mice where binding was detected in wild-type animals. There were no major quantitative differences in kappa- or delta-binding in mutant mice although there were some small regional decreases. The results indicate only subtle changes in delta- and kappa-receptors throughout the brains of animals deficient in mu-receptors.