The influence of foot abduction on differences between two-dimensional and three-dimensional rearfoot motion

Foot Ankle Int. 1998 Jan;19(1):26-31. doi: 10.1177/107110079801900105.


The advantage of a three-dimensional over a two-dimensional approach to rearfoot analysis has been questioned in the past. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in typical rearfoot variables obtained using a two-dimensional analysis compared with a three-dimensional approach. In addition, the influence of foot placement angle on these differences was assessed. Two- and three-dimensional rearfoot kinematics were collected from 18 recreational runners. Two-dimensional values for eversion at toe-off and time to peak eversion were found to be significantly different from the three-dimensional results. Differences between two-dimensional and three-dimensional variables were magnified with increased toe-out. Differences between eversion values were found to be minimal when the foot was abducted between 7 and 10 degrees. The premise that excessive pronators have more pronounced toe-out was not supported by this study. Results suggest that caution should be exercised when assessing two-dimensional rearfoot motion in subjects with excessive toe-out.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Biomechanical Phenomena
  • Foot / physiopathology*
  • Humans
  • Motion*
  • Movement*
  • Pronation
  • Running / physiology*