The 2 known host trees of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and E. tereticornis, do not occur naturally in the 'Top End' of the Northern Territory (NT) of Australia. Nine clinical isolates of C. neoformans var. gattii from the NT were analysed by random amplification of polymorphic deoxyribonucleic acid (RAPD) and polymerase chain reaction 'fingerprinting'. Two isolates were assigned to RAPD profile VGI, previously established as the common RAPD profile. The remaining 7 were assigned to profile VGII; 6 of these isolates were recovered from individuals living in the 'Top End'. The results strongly support the existence of an alternative environmental niche for C. neoformans var. gattii, as all isolates from Eucalyptus spp. in Australia to date have been of RAPD profile VGI.