Effects of cholecystokinin tetrapeptide on respiratory function in healthy volunteers

Am J Psychiatry. 1998 Feb;155(2):280-2. doi: 10.1176/ajp.155.2.280.


Objective: The authors evaluated respiratory response to cholecystokinin tetrapeptide (CCK-4) in healthy volunteers.

Method: Subjects were randomly assigned to either a CCK-4 (N = 15) or placebo (N = 15) challenge under double-blind conditions.

Results: Dyspnea was reported by all of the subjects who received CCK-4 but only one subject who received placebo. CCK-4 caused a significant increase in tidal volume and minute ventilation but had no effect on breathing frequency. Placebo had no effect on any of the respiratory measures.

Conclusions: These data indicate that the behavioral effects of CCK-4 are accompanied by changes in respiration in healthy volunteers.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Panic Disorder / chemically induced
  • Panic Disorder / physiopathology
  • Placebos
  • Pulmonary Ventilation / drug effects
  • Respiration / drug effects*
  • Stimulation, Chemical
  • Tetragastrin / pharmacology*
  • Tidal Volume / drug effects


  • Placebos
  • Tetragastrin