Central venous stenosis occurs as a complication of central venous catheterization and significantly complicates delivery of dialysis through arteriovenous grafts in the ipsilateral upper limb. This report includes two separate studies. Functioning expanded polytetrafluorethylene grafts have been prospectively evaluated using duplex scanning and angiography performed in all patients with stenoses > 50%. From this, it has been prospectively established that the incidence of unsuspected central venous stenoses in patients with functioning grafts is 29%. In the second part of the report, the authors' experience in the treatment of 25 central venous stenoses with percutaneous angioplasty and stent placement has been retrospectively reviewed. Initial technical success rate was 88%. Primary patency was 84% at 1 month, 42% at 6 months, and 17% at 1 year. Mean primary patency was 5.7 months. Stents were placed in five patients. Prevention of central venous stenosis by avoiding subclavian catheterization is optimal. Balloon angioplasty provides short-term patency, but it is the only option in most cases. The role for endovascular stent placement remains to be defined but early results are not optimistic.