Immediate Responses of Leukocytes, Cytokines and Glucocorticoid Hormones in the Blood Circulation of Monkeys Following Challenge With Aerosolized Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B

Int Immunol. 1997 Dec;9(12):1825-36. doi: 10.1093/intimm/9.12.1825.


The immediate responses to aerosolized staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) in respiratory toxic shock were studied in the circulation of rhesus monkeys with low antibody levels following immunization with SEB toxoid-containing microspheres. Both the surviving and dying monkeys had toxic shock syndrome 4-48 h after SEB challenge and all showed three distinctive patterns of immediate responses. The first pattern, characterized by the responses of all T cells, HLA-DRlo cells, monocytes, IL-2R+ cells, IFN-gamma, and augmented lymphocyte mitotic responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and SEB in culture, was a rapid increase at 20 min followed by a quick decrease at 90 min to approximately the original levels. The second pattern, which included responses of HLA-DRhi cells, NK cells, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol, was characterized by a moderate decrease at 20 min and a further decrease at 90 min. The third pattern, the inverse of the second pattern, including responses of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN), concanavalin A (Con A) mitogenesis, IL-6 and IL-2, was a moderate increase at 20 min and a further increase at 90 min. Between the surviving and dying monkeys, the responses of T cells, HLA-DRhi cells, PMN and cortisol did not differ significantly, suggesting that they are the basic causes that initiated toxic shock. However, significant differences were seen in the responses of HLA-DRlo cells, monocytes, IL-2R+ cells and lymphocyte mitogenesis in culture at 20 min, and of Con A mitogenesis, NK cells, IL-2, IL-6 and ACTH at 90 min. These different responses are apparently the exacerbating causes of death of the monkeys. All together, the immediate responses seem to be caused by the combined effects of SEB superantigenicity, activation of NK cells and non-lymphoid cells, and depression of the neuroimmune defense system.

MeSH terms

  • Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood
  • Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / immunology
  • Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / metabolism
  • Aerosols
  • Animals
  • Concanavalin A / pharmacology
  • Cytokines / biosynthesis
  • Cytokines / blood*
  • Enterotoxins / immunology
  • Enterotoxins / toxicity*
  • Female
  • Glucocorticoids / blood*
  • HLA-DR Antigens / immunology
  • Humans
  • Hydrocortisone / blood
  • Hydrocortisone / immunology
  • Hydrocortisone / metabolism
  • Killer Cells, Natural / drug effects
  • Killer Cells, Natural / immunology
  • Leukocytes, Mononuclear / drug effects
  • Leukocytes, Mononuclear / immunology*
  • Lipopolysaccharides / pharmacology
  • Lymphocyte Activation / drug effects
  • Lymphocyte Activation / immunology*
  • Macaca mulatta
  • Male
  • Mitogens / pharmacology
  • T-Lymphocytes / drug effects
  • T-Lymphocytes / immunology


  • Aerosols
  • Cytokines
  • Enterotoxins
  • Glucocorticoids
  • HLA-DR Antigens
  • Lipopolysaccharides
  • Mitogens
  • Concanavalin A
  • enterotoxin B, staphylococcal
  • Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
  • Hydrocortisone