Germline mutations of the RET proto-oncogene are responsible for multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2, including multiple endocrine type 2A (MEN 2A), type 2B (MEN 2B), and familial medullary thyroid carcinoma. The relationship between specific mutations and syndromic features has been established. In particular, the risk for pheochromocytoma and hyperparathyroidism (HPT) in MEN 2A patients is clearly associated with the presence of the RET mutation at a specific position, i.e. at codon 634. Also, a correlation between a specific mutation, C634R, and the development of HPT has been suggested but is still controversial. To further investigate the relationship between specific mutations of codon 634 and the development of HPT, we studied a population of 188 individuals, carrying mutations at codon 634, namely C634R (65 patients belonging to 10 families), C634Y (80 patients belonging to 11 families), or the less frequent codon 634 mutations [i.e. C634S, C634F, C634G, or C634W (43 patients belonging to 9 families)]. In this series of patients, we defined an overall HPT prevalence of 19.1% and found that this prevalence did not vary significantly, with respect to the nature of the mutation. However, irrespective of the particular mutation, the prevalence of HPT showed a high interfamilial variability. The statistical model that best fitted with the observed data was in favor of the heterogeneity of the risk for HPT, with 40% of the families showing an HPT risk of 34% and 60% of the families showing an HPT risk of 9%. In addition, our study clearly demonstrated that HPT could be an early component of the disease and provided the first estimate of age-specific and mutation-specific HPT penetrance in individuals with mutations of codon 634 of the RET proto-oncogene.