A follow-up study of 263 volunteers who had completed a national smoking cessation program was conducted to measure the relative contribution of stress coping resources, smoking history, loci, for health control, and certain demographic factors to the maintenance of smoking cessation. Stress coping resources and smoking history variables proved to be more predictive of the maintenance of abstinence than either perceived locus of control or demographic variables. Coping resources in the forms of perceived confidence, physical health, physical fitness, problem solving, self-directedness, and tension control were useful in predicting abstinence maintenance. Contrary to some earlier studies, no gender differences in relapse rates were found, and smoking a greater number of cigarettes daily and smoking cigarettes with a higher tar content were related to greater success in maintaining smoking abstinence. As was found in previous studies, the presence of other smokers in the household contributed to relapse.