Comparative push-out test of dense HA implants and HA-coated implants: findings in a canine study

J Biomed Mater Res. 1998 Mar 5;39(3):364-72. doi: 10.1002/(sici)1097-4636(19980305)39:3<364::aid-jbm4>;2-h.


Two types of hydroxyapatite (HA) implants have been developed: an HA-coated implant and a dense HA implant. For a longer in situ life span, the HA implant must remain chemically stable and possess high resistance to occlusal force. To determine which type of HA implant shows better durability, this comparative dog study was done to evaluate push-out test results of HA-coated implants and dense HA implants of approximately the same size after implantation in the mandibular and coxal bones for periods ranging from 3 weeks to 10 months. The findings revealed that for the mandibular implants, the push-out values of HA-coated implants were significantly higher than those of dense HA implants at 2 and 4 months after implantation, with significance levels of p < .001 and p < 0.05, respectively. However, there was no significant difference between the two implant types at 10 months. As for the coxal implants, no significant differences were noted for any period. Furthermore, the ratio of push-out values of the dense HA implants to those of the HA-coated implants situated in the same position bilaterally in each bone of the body for each implantation period rose with the passage of time, especially in the mandible. In the mandibular implants, the correlation coefficient of the relationship between the ratio and duration of implantation was highly significant (p < 0.001). Push-out testing caused detachment of the surface portion of the HA coating that was bound to the dense bone from the HA-coated implant at 2, 4, and 10 months after implantation. Furthermore, at 10 months the HA-coated layer in the wide areas of the implants had completely detached from the metal substrate, in contrast to the dense HA implants, which remained durable throughout the test period.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bone Development / physiology
  • Coccyx / anatomy & histology
  • Coccyx / physiology
  • Dogs
  • Fracture Healing / physiology
  • Histocytochemistry
  • Hydroxyapatites*
  • Mandible / anatomy & histology
  • Mandible / physiology
  • Prostheses and Implants*
  • Titanium
  • Tolonium Chloride


  • Hydroxyapatites
  • Tolonium Chloride
  • Titanium