Background: Pulmonary disease is common in preterm infants, despite antenatal glucocorticoid therapy. The addition of antenatal thyrotropin-releasing hormone therapy has been reported to decrease pulmonary morbidity in these infants.
Methods: We enrolled 996 women at 13 North American centers who were in preterm labor at <30 weeks' gestation in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of antenatal thyrotropin-releasing hormone, given intravenously in four doses of 400 microg each at eight-hour intervals. The primary outcome was chronic lung disease or death of the infant on or before the 28th day after delivery, and secondary outcomes were respiratory distress syndrome and chronic lung disease or death at 36 weeks' postmenstrual age. Complete data were available for 981 women and their 1134 live-born infants. The 769 infants born at < or = 32 weeks' gestation were defined as the group at risk.
Results: There were no significant differences between the at-risk treatment and placebo groups in mean (+/-SD) birth weight (1109+/-354 vs. 1097+/-355 g), gestational age (27.9+/-2.1 vs. 27.9+/-2.1 weeks), sex, or race. The frequencies of respiratory distress syndrome (66 percent vs. 65 percent), death at 28 days (11 percent vs. 11 percent), chronic lung disease or death at 28 days (45 percent vs. 42 percent) and at 36 weeks (32 percent vs. 34 percent), and other neonatal complications as well as the severity of lung disease were not significantly different in the at-risk treatment and placebo groups. Similarly, there were no differences in outcome between the treatment and placebo groups for the infants born at >32 weeks' gestation.
Conclusions: In preterm infants at risk for lung disease, antenatal administration of thyrotropin-releasing hormone and glucocorticoid is no more beneficial than glucocorticoid alone.