Study objective: To evaluate the influence of a high-fat meal on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the novel atypical antipsychotic drug ziprasidone.
Design: Open, randomized, three-way crossover study.
Setting: University-based research facility.
Subjects: Eight healthy male volunteers.
Interventions: Ziprasidone 20 mg was administered under fasting conditions (treatment A), and directly after (treatment B) and 2 hours after (treatment C) a standard high-fat breakfast.
Measurements and main results: Serial blood samples were obtained over 36 hours. Three objective psychometric tests were employed to evaluate daytime vigilance at baseline and 2 hours after each dose. Ziprasidone had a significant effect on area under the curve (AUC0-infinity), maximum serum concentration, and half-life (analysis of variance all p<0.05), with the mean AUC0-infinity being significantly greater (627.2 +/- 206.4 vs 371.0 +/- 126.5 ng x hr/ml, ANOVA with Bonferroni's criteria p<0.016) and half-life significantly shorter (4.7 +/- 0.8 vs 6.6 +/- 1.3 hrs, ANOVA with Bonferroni's criteria p<0.016) after treatment B compared with treatment A. Although similar trends were observed after treatment C compared with treatment A, the differences did not reach statistical significance when Bonferroni's correction criteria were applied (p>0.016).
Conclusion: These data suggest an increase in systemic exposure to the highly lipophilic compound ziprasidone when taken after fatty foods, possibly due to improved drug dissolution and solubilization. The drug's longer half-life under fasting conditions may reflect dissolution-limited absorption, although this could not be directly assessed. Despite postprandial increases in ziprasidone AUC0-infinity and maximum concentration, daytime vigilance was not affected.