We evaluated the efficacy and safety of and compliance with rH-EPO (150 U/kg three times a week subcutaneously for up to 12 weeks) for treatment of anemia in childhood Crohn's disease (n = 4). The mean hemoglobin level before rH-EPO therapy was 109 gm/L (10.9 gm/dl) (range, 103 to 115 gm/L). The mean hemoglobin level in the three compliant children increased to 138 gm/L (13.8 gm/dl) after treatment. Response time for the correction of anemia ranged from 6 to 12 weeks (mean, 9.5 weeks). Resolution of symptoms of lethargy, poor appetite, and irritability occurred with correction of the anemia. The only adverse effect observed was transient local pain at the injection site.