Sixteen eyes of eight rabbits were randomised to either mitomycin C or Balanced Salt Solution (BSS) application after photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). Regular examinations of wound healing and haze were performed with the slit lamp. The animals were killed between 1 and 26 weeks after treatment, and the corneas examined by light and electron microscopy. While the grade of haze showed no relevant differences between the two groups, scar tissue was found histologically in the mitomycin group in only 1 of 8 corneas compared with 5 of 8 in the BSS group. A marked reduction in keratocytes in all mitomycin-treated corneas and a normal density of keratocytes in the BSS group was observed. Mitomycin reduced the number of keratocytes in the treated corneas, leading to less scar formation but not to a reduction in haze. Since no morphological correlate has been found, haze remains unexplained in the mitomycin-treated corneas.