Pfeiffer syndrome type 2: further delineation and review of the literature

Am J Med Genet. 1998 Jan 23;75(3):245-51.


We present 5 unrelated patients, 3 boys and 2 girls, with Pfeiffer syndrome (PS) type 2. They all had cloverleaf skull, severe proptosis, ankylosis of the elbows, broad thumbs and/or broad halluces and variable accompanying anomalies. We review the literature on all subtypes of PS. Most patients with PS type 2 died shortly after birth. Causes of death include pulmonary problems, brain abnormalities, prematurity and post-operative complications. DNA studies were performed in 3 of the 5 patients. Two of them showed a 1036T --> C mutation in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) gene, that was earlier reported in PS and in Crouzon syndrome. Probably most, if not all, PS type 2 cases are caused by a de novo mutation in the FGFR2 gene or in another, yet unidentified gene. To date all type 2 cases have been non-familial. A low recurrence risk for parents can be advised.

Publication types

  • Case Reports
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Abnormalities, Multiple / genetics
  • Abnormalities, Multiple / pathology
  • Acrocephalosyndactylia / classification
  • Acrocephalosyndactylia / genetics*
  • Acrocephalosyndactylia / pathology
  • Child, Preschool
  • Female
  • Fetal Death / genetics
  • Fibroblast Growth Factors / genetics
  • Fibroblast Growth Factors / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Male
  • Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / genetics
  • Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 1
  • Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 2
  • Receptors, Fibroblast Growth Factor / genetics


  • Receptors, Fibroblast Growth Factor
  • Fibroblast Growth Factors
  • FGFR1 protein, human
  • FGFR2 protein, human
  • Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
  • Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 1
  • Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 2