Effects of Creatine Supplementation on Body Composition, Strength, and Sprint Performance

Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1998 Jan;30(1):73-82. doi: 10.1097/00005768-199801000-00011.

Abstract

Purpose: To determine the effects of 28 d of creatine supplementation during training on body composition, strength, sprint performance, and hematological profiles.

Methods: In a double-blind and randomized manner, 25 NCAA division IA football players were matched-paired and assigned to supplement their diet for 28 d during resistance/agility training (8 h x wk[-1]) with a Phosphagen HP (Experimental and Applied Sciences, Golden, CO) placebo (P) containing 99 g x d(-1) of glucose, 3 g x d(-1) of taurine, 1.1 g x d(-1) of disodium phosphate, and 1.2 g x d(-1) of potassium phosphate (P) or Phosphagen HP containing the P with 15.75 g x d(-1) of HPCE pure creatine monohydrate (HP). Before and after supplementation, fasting blood samples were obtained; total body weight, total body water, and body composition were determined; subjects performed a maximal repetition test on the isotonic bench press, squat, and power clean; and subjects performed a cycle ergometer sprint test (12 x 6-s sprints with 30-s rest recovery).

Results: Hematological parameters remained within normal clinical limits for active individuals with no side effects reported. Total body weight significantly increased (P < 0.05) in the HP group (P 0.85 +/- 2.2; HP 2.42 +/- 1.4 kg) while no differences were observed in the percentage of total body water. DEXA scanned body mass (P 0.77 +/- 1.8; HP 2.22 +/- 1.5 kg) and fat/bone-free mass (P 1.33 +/- 1.1; HP 2.43 +/- 1.4 kg) were significantly increased in the HP group. Gains in bench press lifting volume (P -5 +/- 134; HP 225 +/- 246 kg), the sum of bench press, squat, and power clean lifting volume (P 1,105 +/- 429; HP 1,558 +/- 645 kg), and total work performed during the first five 6-s sprints was significantly greater in the HP group.

Conclusion: The addition of creatine to the glucose/taurine/electrolyte supplement promoted greater gains in fat/bone-free mass, isotonic lifting volume, and sprint performance during intense resistance/agility training.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Body Composition / drug effects*
  • Body Composition / physiology
  • Creatine / administration & dosage
  • Creatine / pharmacology*
  • Dietary Supplements*
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Exercise / physiology*
  • Hematologic Tests
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Physical Endurance / drug effects*
  • Physical Endurance / physiology
  • Physical Fitness
  • Weight Lifting

Substances

  • Creatine