TOR2 is part of two related signaling pathways coordinating cell growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Genetics. 1998 Jan;148(1):99-112. doi: 10.1093/genetics/148.1.99.


The Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes TOR1 and TOR2 encode phosphatidylinositol kinase homologs. TOR2 has two essential functions. One function overlaps with TOR1 and mediates protein synthesis and cell cycle progression. The second essential function of TOR2 is unique to TOR2 and mediates the cell-cycle-dependent organization of the actin cytoskeleton. We have isolated temperature-sensitive mutants that are defective for either one or both of the two TOR2 functions. The three classes of mutants were as follows. Class A mutants, lacking only the TOR2-unique function, are defective in actin cytoskeleton organization and arrest within two to three generations as small-budded cells in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. Class B mutants, lacking only the TOR-shared function, and class C mutants, lacking both functions, exhibit a rapid loss of protein synthesis and a G1 arrest within one generation. To define further the two functions of TOR2, we isolated multicopy suppressors that rescue the class A or B mutants. Overexpression of MSS4, PKC1, PLC1, RHO2, ROM2, or SUR1 suppressed the growth defect of a class A mutant. Surprisingly, overexpression of PLC1 and MSS4 also suppressed the growth defect of a class B mutant. These genes encode proteins that are involved in phosphoinositide metabolism and signaling. Thus, the two functions (readouts) of TOR2 appear to involve two related signaling pathways controlling cell growth.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Cell Cycle Proteins
  • Cell Division / genetics
  • Fungal Proteins / biosynthesis
  • Fungal Proteins / physiology*
  • G1 Phase
  • G2 Phase
  • Genes, Fungal / genetics
  • Metaphase
  • Mutation
  • Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases
  • Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor) / physiology*
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae / cytology
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae / genetics*
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae / growth & development
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins
  • Signal Transduction / genetics*


  • Cell Cycle Proteins
  • Fungal Proteins
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins
  • Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor)
  • TOR2 protein, S cerevisiae