Capsulated versus hand-mixed glass-ionomer luting cements for post retention

J Dent. 1998 Jan;26(1):47-51. doi: 10.1016/s0300-5712(96)00079-6.


Objectives: Glass-ionomer luting cements are supplied in two forms, as loose powder and liquid to be hand-mixed (HM) or pre-proportioned in a capsule to be mechanically mixed (MM). This study was to determine if post retention in pull-out tests was affected by the method of mixing the cement.

Methods: Two hundred stainless steel posts of diameter 1.75 mm were cemented within post-channels prepared in stainless steel cylinders using two hand-mixed cements FJL and KCL (Fuji I Luting Cement and Ketac-Cem Luting Cement) and two capsulated cements FJC and KCM (Fuji Cap I and Ketac-Cem Maxicap). Three groups of test specimens were prepared. In Group I each cement was mixed as recommended by the manufacturer, Group II cements were placed within a capsule and mechanically mixed and in Group III cements were removed from the capsule and mixed by hand. Specimens were stored for 1 h at 37 degrees C and 100% humidity prior to post pull-out tests at a crosshead speed of 10 mm min-1. The maximum loads at failure were subjected to Weibull analysis and Mann-Whitney tests to determine probabilities of survival and significant differences between the groups.

Results: Significant differences (P < 0.05) were found between all pairs of cements tested except KCM(MM) vs FJL(HM), FJL(MM) vs KCL(HM), KCL(MM), vs KCL(HM), FJC(HM) vs FJC(MM), KCL(MM) vs FJL(MM).

Conclusions: The capsulated cements as supplied by the manufacturers are preferable to the equivalent hand-mixed formulations, as they give higher probabilities of survival when subjected to a given load. Both capsulated and hand-mixed formulations of Fuji had higher probabilities of survival compared to the corresponding Ketac cements. The probability of post survival can be altered by the method of mixing the cement.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Capsules
  • Cementation*
  • Chemical Phenomena
  • Chemistry, Physical
  • Dental Bonding
  • Dental Prosthesis Retention*
  • Equipment Failure
  • Glass Ionomer Cements / chemistry*
  • Hot Temperature
  • Humidity
  • Magnesium Oxide / chemistry
  • Materials Testing
  • Polycarboxylate Cement / chemistry
  • Post and Core Technique*
  • Powders
  • Probability
  • Stainless Steel
  • Stress, Mechanical
  • Surface Properties
  • Zinc Oxide / chemistry


  • Capsules
  • Glass Ionomer Cements
  • Polycarboxylate Cement
  • Powders
  • Stainless Steel
  • Fuji glass-ionomer lining cement
  • Magnesium Oxide
  • Ketac-cem
  • Zinc Oxide