Metalworking fluids (MWFs) are commonly used in a variety of industrial machining and grinding operations. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) estimates that more that one million workers are exposed to MWFs. NIOSH conducted a comprehensive and systematic review of the epidemiologic studies that examined the association between MWF exposure and cancer. Substantial evidence was found for an increased risk of cancer at several sites (larynx, rectum, pancreas, skin, scrotum, and bladder) associated with at least some MWFs used prior to the mid-1970s. This paper provides the evidence pertaining to cancer at these sites. Cancer at those sites found to have more limited or less consistent evidence for an association with MWF (stomach, esophagus, lung, prostate, brain, colon, and hematopoietic system) will not be discussed in this paper but are discussed in the recent NIOSH Criteria for a Recommended Standard-Occupational Exposure to MWFs. Because the changes in MWF composition that have occurred over the last several decades may not be sufficient to eliminate the cancer risks associated with MWF exposure, reductions in airborne MWF exposures are recommended.