The role of CpG dinucleotides in DNA vaccines

Trends Microbiol. 1998 Jan;6(1):23-7. doi: 10.1016/S0966-842X(97)01145-1.


DNA vaccines can induce potent humoral and cellular immune responses without any additional adjuvant. Recent studies indicate that unmethylated CpG dinucleotides within DNA vaccines are immune stimulatory and exert an essential endogenous adjuvant activity. These CpG motifs can be added deliberately to DNA or conventional protein vaccines to enhance the Th1 immune response.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adjuvants, Immunologic
  • Animals
  • B-Lymphocytes / immunology
  • CpG Islands / immunology*
  • Dinucleoside Phosphates / immunology*
  • Humans
  • Immunotherapy
  • Lymphocyte Activation
  • Th1 Cells / immunology
  • Vaccines, DNA / adverse effects
  • Vaccines, DNA / immunology*
  • Vaccines, DNA / therapeutic use*


  • Adjuvants, Immunologic
  • Dinucleoside Phosphates
  • Vaccines, DNA
  • cytidylyl-3'-5'-guanosine