The Arabidopsis gene MONOPTEROS encodes a transcription factor mediating embryo axis formation and vascular development

EMBO J. 1998 Mar 2;17(5):1405-11. doi: 10.1093/emboj/17.5.1405.


The vascular tissues of flowering plants form networks of interconnected cells throughout the plant body. The molecular mechanisms directing the routes of vascular strands and ensuring tissue continuity within the vascular system are not known, but are likely to depend on general cues directing plant cell orientation along the apical-basal axis. Mutations in the Arabidopsis gene MONOPTEROS (MP) interfere with the formation of vascular strands at all stages and also with the initiation of the body axis in the early embryo. Here we report the isolation of the MP gene by positional cloning. The predicted protein product contains functional nuclear localization sequences and a DNA binding domain highly similar to a domain shown to bind to control elements of auxin inducible promoters. During embryogenesis, as well as organ development, MP is initially expressed in broad domains that become gradually confined towards the vascular tissues. These observations suggest that the MP gene has an early function in the establishment of vascular and body patterns in embryonic and post-embryonic development.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Arabidopsis / embryology
  • Arabidopsis / genetics*
  • Arabidopsis / growth & development*
  • Arabidopsis Proteins*
  • Chromosome Walking
  • Cloning, Molecular
  • DNA, Complementary / genetics
  • DNA, Plant / genetics
  • DNA-Binding Proteins*
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Plant / physiology
  • Genes, Plant / genetics*
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Nuclear Localization Signals / genetics
  • Onions
  • Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length
  • RNA, Messenger / analysis
  • RNA, Plant / analysis
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins
  • Seeds / chemistry
  • Sequence Analysis, DNA
  • Transcription Factors / genetics*
  • Transcription Factors / physiology


  • Arabidopsis Proteins
  • DNA, Complementary
  • DNA, Plant
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • MONOPTEROS protein, Arabidopsis
  • Nuclear Localization Signals
  • RNA, Messenger
  • RNA, Plant
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins
  • Transcription Factors

Associated data

  • GENBANK/AF037228
  • GENBANK/AF037229