Recently, we reported the first human study of [99mTc]TRODAT-1, technetium, 2-[[2-[[[3-(4-chlorophenyl)-8-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]oct-2- yl]methyl](2-mercaptoethyl)amino]ethyl]amino]-ethanethiolato(3-)-o xo- [1R-(exo-exo)]-, as an imaging agent of central nervous system (CNS) dopamine transporters. Due to the existence of several chiral centers on this molecule, upon the formation of [99mTc]TRODAT-1 complex (2) several diastereomers could be created. Two major diastereomers of [99mTc]TRODAT-1 (2), designated as peak A (2A) and peak B (2B), were separated by HPLC. Biodistribution of the purified diastereomers 2A,B was evaluated in rats. It appears that 2A displayed a higher lipophilicity than 2B (PC = 305 and 229, respectively), and a similar trend was observed for the initial brain uptake at 2 min postinjection (0.50% and 0.28% dose/organ for 2A,B, respectively). At 60 min post-iv-injection, the specific uptakes, as measured by [striatum - cerebellum]/cerebellum ([ST-CB]/CB) ratio, were 1.72 and 2.79 for 2A,B, respectively. The higher [ST-CB]/CB ratio observed for 2B was corroborated by the results of an in vitro binding assay. Higher binding affinity for dopamine transporters was observed for 3B (Ki = 13.87 and 8.42 nM for the analogous rhenium complexes 3A,B, respectively). The structure of the [99mTc]TRODAT-1 complexes was deduced using nonradioactive rhenium as a surrogate for radioactive technetium complex. Reacting free TRODAT-1 ligand with [Bu4N][ReOCl4] yielded two major complexes: Re-TRODAT-1A (3A) and Re-TRODAT-1B (3B) (corresponding with peaks A and B of [99mTc]TRODAT-1, respectively), whose structures were determined by X-ray analysis. The X-ray structures show that both complexes have a pseudo-square-pyramidal structure of [RevO]3+N2S2 core with oxygen occupying the apical position and the N-alkyl substitution in syn-configuration to the oxo-rhenium bond. In conclusion, TRODAT-1 formed at least two diastereomers after complexing with a metal(V)-oxo (M = 99mTc, Re) center core. The two isomers display different binding affinities toward dopamine transporters and distinct properties of localization in the striatum area of the brain where the transporters are located.