Once presumed to be relatively uniform, the axonal cytoskeleton can vary markedly in size and composition along its length. New studies emphasize the interactiveness of neurofilaments and identify a family of cytoskeletal proteins that may cross-link the various cytoskeletal polymers of the axon, and anchor this network to the membrane skeleton. These and other findings support a model of the axonal cytoskeleton as a stationary but dynamic structure. Current evidence continues to support the possibility that axonally transported polymers/oligomers and/or monomers may serve as precursors to the cytoskeleton in different situations. Although the motors for slow transport of cytoskeletal proteins remain elusive, possible candidates are emerging.