Two subpopulations of human T lymphocytes expressing different antigen receptors, alpha/beta and gamma/delta, emigrate into inflamed tissues in distinctive patterns. We compared the transmigration of alpha/beta and gamma/delta T cells to C-C and C-X-C chemokines using an in vitro transendothelial chemotaxis assay. The C-C chemokines monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, RANTES, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1alpha and MIP-1beta stimulated similar, dose-dependent chemotaxis of purified gamma/delta T cells, whereas MCP-1, RANTES, and MIP-1alpha produced greater chemotaxis of purified alpha/beta T cells than MIP-1beta. In contrast, the C-X-C chemokines interleukin (IL)-8 and interferon-gamma inducible protein-10 (IP-10) did not promote chemotaxis of either alpha/beta or gamma/delta T cells. Three gamma/delta T cell clones with differing CD4 and CD8 phenotypes also migrated exclusively to C-C chemokines. Phenotypic analysis of mononuclear cells that transmigrated from an input population of unfractionated peripheral blood mononuclear cells confirmed the results with purified gamma/delta T cells. Our data demonstrate that human peripheral blood alpha/beta and gamma/delta T cells can transmigrate to MCP-1, RANTES, MIP-1alpha, and MIP-1beta, and suggest that both T lymphocyte subpopulations share the capacity to emigrate in response to C-C chemokines during inflammation.