In vivo electrically mediated protein and gene transfer in murine melanoma

Nat Biotechnol. 1998 Feb;16(2):168-71. doi: 10.1038/nbt0298-168.


We show that efficient permeabilization of murine melanoma can be obtained in vivo by applying electric pulses. More than 80% of the cell population is affected as shown by the penetration of propidium iodide. A protein, beta-galactosidase, can be transferred and expressed into the cells by incorporating either the protein or a plasmid carrying the reporter gene with respective efficiencies of 20% and 4%. This is obtained by a direct injection of either the protein or the plasmid in the tumor, followed by the application of electric pulses with surface electrodes in contact with the skin. This approach is simple and safe to use, reproducible, and specific; moreover, it is potentially applicable to a wide variety of tissues, cell types, and animals.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • DNA / administration & dosage*
  • Drug Delivery Systems
  • Electroporation / methods*
  • Gene Transfer Techniques*
  • Genetic Therapy / methods
  • Melanoma, Experimental / metabolism
  • Melanoma, Experimental / therapy*
  • Mice
  • Proteins / administration & dosage*
  • Proteins / therapeutic use
  • beta-Galactosidase / genetics


  • Proteins
  • DNA
  • beta-Galactosidase