Origin of mountains on Io by thrust faulting and large-scale mass movements

Science. 1998 Mar 6;279(5356):1514-7. doi: 10.1126/science.279.5356.1514.


Voyager stereoimages of Euboea Montes, Io, indicate that this mountain formed when a large crustal block was uplifted 10.5 kilometers and tilted by approximately 6 degrees. Uplift triggered a massive slope failure on the northwest flank, forming one of the largest debris aprons in the solar system. This slope failure probably involved relatively unconsolidated layers totaling approximately 2 kilometers in thickness, overlying a rigid crust (or lithosphere) at least 11 kilometers thick. Mountain formation on Io may involve localized deep-rooted thrust faulting and block rotation, due to compression at depth induced during vertical recycling of Io's crust.