Grebe syndrome: clinical and radiographic findings in affected individuals and heterozygous carriers

Am J Med Genet. 1998 Feb 17;75(5):523-9. doi: 10.1002/(sici)1096-8628(19980217)75:5<523::aid-ajmg13>;2-m.


Grebe syndrome is a recessively inherited acromesomelic dysplasia. We studied, clinically and radiographically, 10 affected individuals, originating from Bahia, Brazil. The phenotype is characterized by a normal axial skeleton and severely shortened and deformed limbs, with a proximo-distal gradient of severity. The humeri and femora were relatively normal, the radii/ulnae and tibiae/fibulae were short and deformed, carpal and tarsal bones were fused, and several metacarpal and metatarsal bones were absent. The proximal and middle phalanges of the fingers and toes were invariably absent, while the distal phalanges were present. Postaxial polydactyly was found in several affected individuals. Several joints of the carpus, tarsus, hand, and foot were absent. Heterozygotes presented with a variety of skeletal manifestations including polydactyly, brachydactyly, hallux valgus, and metatarsus adductus. Grebe syndrome is caused by a missense mutation in the gene encoding cartilage-derived morphogenetic protein-1.

Publication types

  • Case Reports
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Abnormalities, Multiple / diagnosis
  • Abnormalities, Multiple / diagnostic imaging
  • Abnormalities, Multiple / genetics*
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Arthrography
  • Bone Morphogenetic Proteins*
  • Child
  • Dwarfism / diagnosis
  • Dwarfism / diagnostic imaging
  • Dwarfism / genetics*
  • Female
  • Foot Deformities, Congenital / diagnosis
  • Foot Deformities, Congenital / diagnostic imaging
  • Foot Deformities, Congenital / genetics
  • Genetic Carrier Screening*
  • Growth Differentiation Factor 5
  • Growth Substances / genetics
  • Hand Deformities, Congenital / diagnosis
  • Hand Deformities, Congenital / diagnostic imaging
  • Hand Deformities, Congenital / genetics
  • Humans
  • Joints / abnormalities
  • Limb Deformities, Congenital / diagnosis
  • Limb Deformities, Congenital / diagnostic imaging
  • Limb Deformities, Congenital / genetics*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Mutation / genetics
  • Pedigree
  • Polydactyly / diagnosis
  • Polydactyly / diagnostic imaging
  • Polydactyly / genetics
  • Syndrome


  • Bone Morphogenetic Proteins
  • Growth Differentiation Factor 5
  • Growth Substances