Passive immunity to bovine rotavirus in newborn calves fed colostrum supplements from cows immunized with recombinant SA11 rotavirus core-like particle (CLP) or virus-like particle (VLP) vaccines

Vaccine. 1998 Mar;16(5):507-16. doi: 10.1016/s0264-410x(97)80004-7.

Abstract

Heterotypic passive immunity to IND (P/5/G6) bovine rotavirus (BRV) was evaluated. Three groups of calves (n = 5 per group) were fed 1% pooled colostrum supplements (birth to 7 days of age) from BRV seropositive cows vaccinated with recombinant SA11(P/2/G3) rotavirus-like particles (VLPs), recombinant SA11 rotavirus core-like particles (CLPs), or inactivated SA11 rotavirus (SA11). Control calves (n = 5 per group) received either pooled colostrum from unvaccinated (BRV field exposure seropositive) control cows, or no colostrum. IgG1 antibody titers to IND BRV for the pooled colostrum were: 1,048,576 (VLP); 1,048,576 (CLP); 262,144 (SA11); and 16,384 (control colostrum). Elevated titers of BRV neutralizing (VN) antibodies were present in VLP colostrum (98,000), and SA11 colostrum (25,000), but not in CLP colostrum (1400), compared to colostrum from nonvaccinates (2081). Calves were orally inoculated with virulent IND BRV at 2 days of age and challenged at post-inoculation day (PID) 21. Calves were monitored daily for diarrhea and faecal BRV shedding through PID 10 and post-challenge day (PCD) 10. After colostrum feeding, the IgG1 antibody titers were highest in serum and faeces of calves fed VLP and CLP colostrum, but VN and IgA antibodies were highest in calves fed VLP colostrum. After BRV inoculation, calves fed colostrum from vaccinated cows had significantly fewer days of BRV-associated diarrhea and BRV shedding than control calves. All calves fed VLP colostrum were protected from diarrhea after BRV inoculation; two calves shed BRV. In the CLP colostrum group, one calf developed BRV-associated diarrhea and all calves shed virus. In the SA11 colostrum group, three calves developed BRV-associated diarrhea and four calves shed virus. BRV-associated diarrhea and shedding occurred in 9 of 10 control calves. Active IgM antibody responses occurred in faeces and/or serum of most calves after BRV inoculation. However, the highest active antibody responses (IgM and IgG1 in serum, and IgM, IgG1 or IgA in faeces) after BRV inoculation were in calves fed control or no colostrum, in association with clinical diarrhea in most of these calves. After challenge at PID 21, BRV-associated diarrhea and shedding were of short duration or absent, in all groups. These results demonstrate the efficacy of colostrum from VLP vaccinated cows to provide heterologous, passive protection against BRV diarrhea and shedding in calves. In comparison, calves fed CLP or SA11 colostrum were only partially protected against BRV diarrhea or shedding.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Animals, Newborn
  • Antigens, Viral / immunology*
  • Cattle
  • Colostrum / immunology*
  • Diarrhea / prevention & control
  • Dietary Supplements*
  • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
  • Female
  • Immunity, Maternally-Acquired*
  • Immunization
  • Neutralization Tests
  • Rotavirus Infections / prevention & control*
  • Titrimetry
  • Vaccines, Synthetic*

Substances

  • Antigens, Viral
  • SA-11 antigen, Rotavirus
  • Vaccines, Synthetic