Mild hyperhomocysteinemia is an established risk factor for both arteriosclerosis and thrombosis, and may be caused by genetic and environmental factors. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) catalyzes the reduction of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate to 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, the cofactor for the methylation of homocysteine to methionine. Individuals with the thermolabile variant of MTHFR have decreased MTHFR activities, resulting in elevated plasma homocysteine concentrations. A homozygous 677C-->T transition in the MTHFR gene has recently been identified as the cause of reduced enzyme activity and thermolability of the protein. We studied the frequency of the homozygous mutant (+/+) genotype in 471 patients with deep-vein thrombosis and 474 healthy controls enrolled in The Leiden Thrombophilia Study (LETS), its interaction with factor V Leiden, and assessed the association between the MTHFR genotypes and plasma homocysteine concentration. Homozygosity for the 677C-->T polymorphism was observed in 47 (10%) patients, and in 47 (9.9%) controls (OR 1.01 [95% CI: 0.7-1.5]). No modified risk of the (+/+) genotype was observed in carriers of factor V Leiden. Our data suggest that, although the homozygous mutant genotype is associated with elevated plasma homocysteine concentrations, this homozygous mutation itself is not a genetic risk factor for deep-vein thrombosis, irrespective of factor V Leiden genotype.