The epidemiology of foodborne diseases is rapidly changing. In the past 15 years, new foodborne pathogens, such as Campylobacter jejuni and Escherichia coli O157:H7, have emerged as important public health problems. Well-recognized pathogens, such as Salmonella serotype Enteritidis, have increased in prevalence or become associated with new vehicles, and pathogens such as C. jejuni and S. Typhimurium are becoming increasingly resistant to antimicrobial agents. Evolving trends in foodborne diseases are being driven by the same factors that have led to the emergence of other infectious diseases: changes in demographic characteristics of the population, human behavior, industry, and technology and the shift toward a global economy, microbial adaptation, and breakdown in the public health infrastructure. Addressing emerging foodborne disease will require more sensitive and timely surveillance, enhanced methods of laboratory identification and subtyping, and identification of effective prevention and control strategies.