The Captopril Prevention Project (CAPPP) is an ongoing intervention study conducted in 11,019 hypertensive patients in Sweden and Finland. Patients have been randomized to receive either conventional antihypertensive therapy (diuretics and/or beta-blockers) or captopril-based treatment. A prospective, randomized, open, blinded-endpoint evaluation (PROBE) study design is used to compare these two therapeutic regimens as regards cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The rationale for the CAPPP Study are the many observations of beneficial effects of ACE inhibition, as compared to diuretics and beta-blockers, on intermediary endpoints such as insulin sensitivity, serum lipoproteins, left ventricular hypertrophy and renal function. Captopril has also been shown to be markedly effective in the treatment of left ventricular dysfunction as well as congestive heart failure. The hypothesis is that these differences might result in improved risk reduction when ACE inhibitors are used in the treatment of hypertension. The present paper describes the baseline data and the changes in blood pressure during the first year in the total cohort. During the first year the average blood pressure was reduced by 11/8 mm Hg. A number of substudies have been conducted in the CAPPP Study. In one of these insulin sensitivity was compared in a subgroup of the patients using the euglycemic insulin clamp technique. In another substudy the ACE gene was sequenced and some new polymorphisms were discovered. Several other substudies are in progress or in the planning phase. The main results of the CAPPP Study should be available by mid-1998. Some of the intended anayses of the final results as well as other planned substudies are briefly described here.