British 1990 growth reference centiles for weight, height, body mass index and head circumference fitted by maximum penalized likelihood

Stat Med. 1998 Feb 28;17(4):407-29.


To update the British growth reference, anthropometric data for weight, height, body mass index (weight/height2) and head circumference from 17 distinct surveys representative of England, Scotland and Wales (37,700 children, age range 23 weeks gestation to 23 years) were analysed by maximum penalized likelihood using the LMS method. This estimates the measurement centiles in terms of three age-sex-specific cubic spline curves: the L curve (Box-Cox power to remove skewness), M curve (median) and S curve (coefficient of variation). A two-stage fitting procedure was developed to model the age trends in median weight and height, and simulation was used to estimate confidence intervals for the fitted centiles. The reference converts measurements to standard deviation scores (SDS) that are very close to Normally distributed - the means, medians and skewness for the four measurements are effectively zero overall, with standard deviations very close to one and only slight evidence of positive kurtosis beyond+/-2 SDS. The ability to express anthropometry as SDS greatly simplifies growth assessment.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Anthropometry*
  • Body Height
  • Body Mass Index
  • Body Weight
  • Cephalometry
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Confidence Intervals
  • Female
  • Gestational Age
  • Head / growth & development
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Likelihood Functions*
  • Male
  • Models, Statistical*
  • Normal Distribution
  • Reference Values
  • United Kingdom