Stra3/lefty, a retinoic acid-inducible novel member of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily

Int J Dev Biol. 1998 Jan;42(1):23-32.


We report the structure, chromosomal localization and expression features of Stra3, a novel mouse gene whose expression is upregulated by retinoic acid in P19 embryonal carcinoma cells. The Stra3 cDNA sequence, which encodes a novel member of the TGF-beta superfamily, corresponds to, but extends more 3' than the recently published lefty sequence (Meno et al., 1996, Nature 381:151-155). The Stra3/lefty protein, which exhibits characteristics of secreted proteins, is synthesized as a precursor of 42 kDa and secreted after cleavage, suggesting that it may function as an intercellular signaling molecule. There are four exons in the Stra3/lefty gene and its 5' flanking region contains, among other putative regulatory elements, an unusual retinoid response element consisting of two half sites arranged as a palindrome, with an 8 base pairs spacer. We also show that Stra3/lefty is ectopically induced in the endodermal and ectodermal layers following in vivo administration of retinoic acid to gastrulating mouse embryos.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Base Sequence
  • Chromosome Mapping
  • Cloning, Molecular
  • Ectoderm / physiology
  • Embryo, Mammalian / physiology
  • Embryonic and Fetal Development
  • Endoderm / physiology
  • Exons / genetics
  • Gastrula / drug effects
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / genetics
  • Genes, Reporter / genetics
  • In Situ Hybridization
  • Introns / genetics
  • Left-Right Determination Factors
  • Male
  • Membrane Proteins / chemistry*
  • Mice
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Phylogeny
  • Protein Precursors / metabolism
  • Proteins / chemistry*
  • Receptors, Retinoic Acid / metabolism
  • Sequence Analysis, DNA
  • Signal Transduction / physiology
  • Testis / chemistry
  • Testis / embryology
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta / chemistry*
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta / genetics
  • Tretinoin / pharmacology*
  • Tumor Cells, Cultured
  • Up-Regulation / physiology


  • Left-Right Determination Factors
  • Lefty1 protein, mouse
  • Membrane Proteins
  • Protein Precursors
  • Proteins
  • Receptors, Retinoic Acid
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta
  • Tretinoin