The most recent position statement on nutrition from the American Diabetes Association recommends an individualized approach to nutrition that is based on the nutritional assessment and desired outcomes of each patient and that takes into consideration patient preferences and control of hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia. To achieve these nutritional goals, either low-saturated-fat, high-carbohydrate diets or high-monounsaturated-fat diets can be advised. A meta-analysis of various studies comparing these two approaches to diet therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes revealed that high-monounsaturated-fat diets improve lipoprotein profiles as well as glycemic control. High-monounsaturated-fat diets reduce fasting plasma triacylglycerol and VLDL-cholesterol concentrations by 19% and 22%, respectively, and cause a modest increase in HDL-cholesterol concentrations without adversely affecting LDL-cholesterol concentrations. Furthermore, there is no evidence that high-monounsaturated-fat diets induce weight gain in patients with diabetes mellitus provided that energy intake is controlled. Therefore, a diet rich in cis-monounsaturated fat can be advantageous for both patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes who are trying to maintain or lose weight.