Rhesus monkeys raised in colonies tend to become naturally infected by Helicobacter pylori early in life. Earlier attempts to cure H. pylori infection with a 10-day triple therapy (metronidazole, amoxicillin, and peptobismol) were only partially (60%) successful, probably because of preexisting metronidazole resistance. This study was carried out to determine the efficacy of an alternative clarithromycin-omeprazole-based therapy for curing H. pylori infection in Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), and to examine histologic and serologic correlates of curing. Five monkeys were endoscoped under ketamine anesthesia. Histology and culture of gastric biopsies and serologic tests demonstrated that they were H. pylori-positive. Two animals had not received prior anti-H. pylori treatment, while three other animals had failed triple therapy and carried metronidazole-resistant H. pylori strains. Quadruple therapy with omeprazole, clarithromycin, amoxicillin, and bismuth subsalicylate was given for 10 days to these five animals. All five animals were cured of the infection, and remained H. pylori-free, based on histology and culture at regular intervals for the 5 months posttherapy during which they were followed. Gastritis scores and anti-H. pylori IgG levels decreased in each animal during this period to levels characteristic of uninfected animals. These results indicate that an omeprazole-clarithromycin-based regimen can cure H. pylori infection in Rhesus monkeys, with resolution of abnormal histology and serologic responses. They suggest that this preclinical animal model is useful for testing new anti-H. pylori therapies.