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, 273 (11), 6144-8

Transmembrane Topology of glucose-6-phosphatase

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Transmembrane Topology of glucose-6-phosphatase

C J Pan et al. J Biol Chem.

Abstract

Deficiency of microsomal glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), the key enzyme in glucose homeostasis, causes glycogen storage disease type 1a, an autosomal recessive disorder. Characterization of the transmembrane topology of G6Pase should facilitate the identification of amino acid residues contributing to the active site and broaden our understanding of the effects of mutations that cause glycogen storage disease type 1a. Using N- and C-terminal tagged G6Pase, we show that in intact microsomes, the N terminus is resistant to protease digestion, whereas the C terminus is sensitive to such treatment. Our results demonstrate that G6Pase possesses an odd number of transmembrane helices, with its N and C termini facing the endoplasmic reticulum lumen and the cytoplasm, respectively. During catalysis, a phosphoryl-enzyme intermediate is formed, and the phosphoryl acceptor in G6Pase is a His residue. Sequence alignment suggests that mammalian G6Pases, lipid phosphatases, acid phosphatases, and a vanadium-containing chloroperoxidase (whose tertiary structure is known) share a conserved phosphatase motif. Active-site alignment of the vanadium-containing chloroperoxidase and G6Pases predicts that Arg-83, His-119, and His-176 in G6Pase contribute to the active site and that His-176 is the residue that covalently binds the phosphoryl moiety during catalysis. This alignment also predicts that Arg-83, His-119, and His-176 reside on the same side of the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, which is supported by the recently predicted nine-transmembrane helical model for G6Pase. We have previously shown that Arg-83 is involved in positioning the phosphate during catalysis and that His-119 is essential for G6Pase activity. Here we demonstrate that substitution of His-176 with structurally similar or dissimilar amino acids inactivates the enzyme, suggesting that His-176 could be the phosphoryl acceptor in G6Pase during catalysis.

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