We recently have identified a ubiquitously transcribed mouse Y chromosome gene, Uty , which encodes a tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) protein. A peptide derived from the UTY protein confers H-Y antigenicity on male cells. Here we report the characterization of a widely transcribed X-linked homologue of Uty , called Utx , which maps to the proximal region of the mouse X chromosome and which detects a human X-linked homologue at Xp11.2. Given that Uty is ubiquitously transcribed, we assayed for Utx expression from the inactive X chromosome (Xi) in mice and found that Utx escapes X chromosome inactivation. Only Smcx and the pseudoautosomal Sts gene on the mouse X chromosome have been reported previously to escape inactivation. The human UTX gene was also found to be expressed from Xi. We discuss the significance of these data for our understanding of dosage compensation of X-Y homologous genes in humans and mice.