The purpose of this study was to determine the suitability of MRI to accurately detect radiofrequency (RF) thermoablative lesions created under MR guidance. In vivo RF lesions were created in the livers of six New Zealand White rabbits using a 2-mm-diameter titanium alloy RF electrode with a 20-mm exposed tip and a 50-W RF generator. This was performed using a 0.2T clinical C-arm MR imager for guidance and monitoring. Each animal was sacrificed and gross evaluation was performed. Histologic correlation was performed on the first two animals. The MR-compatible RF electrode was easily identified on rapid gradient-echo images used to guide electrode placement. A single lesion was created in each rabbit liver. Lesions ranged from approximately 10 to 17 mm in diameter (mean, 13.5 mm). T2-weighted and short T1 inversion recovery (STIR) images demonstrated lesions ranging in diameter from 12 to 18 mm (mean, 14.6 mm). Lesion dimensions determined from images closely correlated with those determined at gross examination with the discrepancy never exceeding 2 mm, for an r2 value of .87. MRI performed at the time of MR-guided RF ablation accurately demonstrated created lesions. This modality may provide a new option for the treatment of local and regional neoplastic disease.