The purpose of this study was the application of the proton-resonance-frequency method to monitor laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy (LITT) in a patient with an astrocytoma WHO II. A phase-sensitive two-dimensional (2D) fast low-angle shot (FLASH) sequence was used to determine the temperature-related phase shifts during LITT. Temperature maps were displayed during therapy with a temporal resolution of 20 seconds. Irradiation was discontinued as soon as the 60 to 65 degrees C isotherm reached the margin of the tumor. A contrast-enhanced MRI study performed immediately after therapy showed a good correlation of the size of an enhancing rim around the lesion with the 60 to 65 degrees C isotherm. The preliminary results of our study indicate that MRI guidance of LITT may be improved by temperature quantification based on the proton-resonance-frequency method.