Background: Acute hyperglycaemia is known to inhibit jejunal interdigestive motility. This study was undertaken to establish the effects of hyperglycaemia on fed jejunal motility and small intestinal transit time, and to establish if the effects of hyperglycaemia are mediated in part by hyperinsulinaemia.
Methods: Nine healthy male volunteers were studied in random order using three experimental conditions: (a) euglycaemic clamp [glucose 5 mmol L(-1)]; (b) hyperglycaemic clamp [glucose 15 mmol L(-1)]; and (c) euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp [glucose 5 mmol L(-l)]. Fed jejunal motility was induced by an intrajejunal perfusion of lipid (Lipofundin medium-chained triglyceride 10%) at 1.5 mL min(-1) [1.5 kcal min(-1)] for 180 min through the most proximal port of a manometry catheter (eight ports spaced at 2-cm intervals) located just distal to the ligament of Treitz. One minute after starting the lipid perfusion, 15 g of lactulose dissolved in 20 mL of tap water was infused. Small intestinal transit time was measured by the hydrogen breath test.
Results: Acute hyperglycaemia reduced the total number of jejunal contractions and progradely propagated contractions, the motility index (P < 0.05) and the mean amplitude of contractions and delayed intestinal transit time. Hyperinsulinaemia reduced the total number of jejunal contractions, motility index (P < 0.05) and intestinal transit time.
Conclusions: Thus, hyperinsulinaemia may contribute to the inhibitory effects of hyperglycaemia on jejunal motility. In addition, this study demonstrated that intrajejunal infusion of lipid stimulates sustained glucagon-like peptide-1 release. In contrast to fat-induced gastric inhibitory polypeptide release, this glucagon-like peptide-1 release is not inhibited by exogenous or endogenous hyperinsulinaemia (P = 0.59).