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, 26 (2), 446-50

Evaluation of a Polymerase Chain Reaction-Based Universal Heteroduplex Generator Assay for Direct Detection of Rifampin Susceptibility of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis From Sputum Specimens

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Evaluation of a Polymerase Chain Reaction-Based Universal Heteroduplex Generator Assay for Direct Detection of Rifampin Susceptibility of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis From Sputum Specimens

D L Williams et al. Clin Infect Dis.

Abstract

In a double-blind study, 655 sputum specimens were obtained from individuals suspected of having tuberculosis and were analyzed for the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and rifampin susceptibility with use of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based universal heteroduplex generator assay (PCR/UHG-Rif). Of the specimens containing viable M. tuberculosis, 100% of the smear-positive (n = 41) and 50% of the smear-negative (n = 6) specimens tested positive for the organism by PCR/UHG-Rif. Nineteen of 537 culture-negative specimens tested positive for M. tuberculosis by PCR/UHG-Rif and were from patients with confirmed tuberculosis who were receiving antituberculosis therapy at the time of specimen collection. Thirty-five specimens contained nontuberculous mycobacteria and were negative by PCR/UHG-Rif. Genotypic evidence of rifampin resistance in five of six culture-confirmed, rifampin-resistant isolates was obtained by PCR/UHG-Rif, yielding a sensitivity and specificity for the assay of 83% and 98.2%, respectively. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using a PCR-based assay directly on sputum specimens for simultaneous detection of M. tuberculosis and rifampin susceptibility, and they suggest that patients with smear-positive, untreated tuberculosis and those presenting with suspected drug-resistant tuberculosis are the most appropriate groups for testing by PCR/UHG-Rif.

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