Comparison of exhaled nitric oxide and cardiorespiratory indices between nasal and oral breathing during submaximal exercise in humans

Jpn J Physiol. 1997 Oct;47(5):465-70. doi: 10.2170/jjphysiol.47.465.


In order to examine the origin and role of nitric oxide (NO) in exhaled air during exercise, exhaled NO outputs of 8 healthy human subjects were compared using different breathing methods, through the mouth or nose, at two intensities of bicycle exercise. The concentration of NO in the exhaled air and ventilatory gas exchange variables were measured by a chemiluminescence analyzer and a mixing chamber method, respectively. The concentration and total output of NO in the expired air was significantly higher under nasal breathing than under oral breathing for both exercise intensities, whereas no significant difference was observed in cardiorespiratory variables between them. NO output increased significantly when exercise intensity was increased from unloaded (0 W) to 60 W under nasal breathing, but not under oral breathing. A negative correlation among subjects was found between NO output and minute ventilation in both breathing methods only for unloaded exercise. Data indicate that nasal airways have a large contribution, at least 50% of total NO output in the exhaled air during nasal breathing, but this nasal NO may have no further modulation on respiratory function during submaximal exercise by healthy humans.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Comparative Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Breath Tests
  • Carbon Dioxide / metabolism
  • Exercise / physiology*
  • Heart Rate / physiology
  • Hemodynamics / physiology
  • Humans
  • Least-Squares Analysis
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Mouth Mucosa / metabolism
  • Nasal Cavity / physiology
  • Nitric Oxide / metabolism*
  • Oxygen Consumption / physiology
  • Reference Values
  • Respiration / physiology*
  • Respiratory Transport


  • Carbon Dioxide
  • Nitric Oxide