Today, almost three dozen human chemokines have been identified. The main function of these soluble proteins is the recruitment of leukocytes to sites of infection and inflammation. This review emphasizes the new developments in the field of lymphocyte responses to chemokines. Notably, it was shown that lymphocytes require stimulation to become responsive to chemokines, a process that is closely linked to chemokine receptor expression. As an exception, one chemokine, SDF-1, is a highly effective chemoattractant for non-activated T lymphocytes and progenitor B cells. Of particular interest are the chemokines IP10 and Mig which bind to a receptor with selective expression in activated T lymphocytes and, therefore, may be critical mediators of T lymphocyte migration in T cell-dependent immune-responses. All other chemokines with activities in lymphocytes do also induce responses in monocytes and granulocytes. The involvement of chemokine receptors in HIV infection is briefly mentioned, while other interesting areas in chemokine research, such as hematopoiesis and angiogenesis, are not discussed.