Formoterol. An update of its pharmacological properties and therapeutic efficacy in the management of asthma

Drugs. 1998 Feb;55(2):303-22. doi: 10.2165/00003495-199855020-00016.


Formoterol, a selective beta 2-adrenoceptor agonist, produces effective dose-proportional bronchodilation, which persists for up to 12 hours, in patients with reversible obstructive respiratory disease. Bronchodilation is significant within minutes of inhalation, maximal within 2 hours, and at therapeutic doses is equivalent to that produced by standard doses of traditional beta 2-agonists. In single-dose studies comparing the two long-acting beta 2-agonists formoterol and salmeterol, significant bronchodilation is achieved more rapidly with formoterol than salmeterol. Duration of bronchodilation is similar with both drugs. The therapeutic efficacy of inhaled formoterol has been equal to or greater than that of salbutamol (albuterol), fenoterol and terbutaline in both short and long term clinical trials. Formoterol reduces symptoms of nocturnal asthma and reduces the need for rescue medication compared with salbutamol. Recent studies have shown that the addition of inhaled formoterol 12 or 24 micrograms twice daily to existing inhaled corticosteroid regimens improves lung function and reduces asthma symptoms compared with placebo. In one well designed study, the frequency of severe exacerbations of asthma over 12 months was decreased by adding formoterol to existing regimens of inhaled corticosteroids. Tolerance to the bronchodilator response of formoterol has not been observed in long term clinical trials. Because of its long duration of action, formoterol offers significant therapeutic advantages over shorter-acting beta 2-agonists in the treatment of nocturnal and exercise-induced asthma. Formoterol is effective in preventing exercise-induced asthma in adults and children and confers significantly more protection than salbutamol when administered 3 and 12 hours before exercise. In general, inhaled formoterol is well tolerated. The most commonly reported adverse effects, tremor and palpitations, are those traditionally associated with the use of beta 2-agonists. Oral formoterol and high doses of inhaled formoterol are associated with more adverse events than are the recommended doses of 6 to 24 micrograms. Formoterol is currently recommended for use as an alternative to increasing inhaled steroid dosage in patients whose symptoms are inadequately controlled despite therapy with low to moderate doses of inhaled steroids and intermittent short-acting beta 2-agonists, and results of recent studies support therapeutic guidelines. Long term clinical studies comparing formoterol and salmeterol have not yet been published. Further studies to evaluate the earlier use of formoterol in patients with mild to moderate asthma are needed to determine the role and long term safety of formoterol in the management of asthma.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Asthmatic Agents / pharmacokinetics
  • Anti-Asthmatic Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Asthma / drug therapy*
  • Bronchodilator Agents / pharmacokinetics
  • Bronchodilator Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Clinical Trials as Topic
  • Ethanolamines / pharmacokinetics
  • Ethanolamines / therapeutic use*
  • Formoterol Fumarate
  • Humans


  • Anti-Asthmatic Agents
  • Bronchodilator Agents
  • Ethanolamines
  • Formoterol Fumarate