Metabotropic glutamate receptors are important mediators of excitatory amino acid neurotransmission in the striatum. Two-color immunofluorescence histochemistry and immunohistochemistry in combination with retrograde tract-tracing techniques were used to examine the distribution of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtypes 1a and 5 (mGluR1a and mGluR5) among identified subpopulations of striatal projection neurons and interneurons. The majority of striatopallidal and striatonigral neurons were double-labeled for both mGluR1a or mGluR5. Approximately 60% to 70% of either striatonigral or striatopallidal neurons expressed mGluR1a- or mGluR5-like immunoreactivity. The percentage of double-labeled striatopallidal or striatonigral projection neurons did not differ among striatal quadrants. Striatal interneurons expressing parvalbumin or somatostatin or choline acetyltransferase exhibited varying degrees of expression of mGluR1a or mGluR5. Virtually all (94%) parvalbumin-immunoreactive striatal neurons expressed mGluR1a-like immunoreactivity with a majority (79%) of these neurons expressing mGluR5-like immunoreactivity. A high percentage (89%) of striatal choline acetyltransferase-immunoreactive neurons were double-labeled for mGluR1a-like immunoreactivity. Approximately 65% of striatal choline acetyltransferase-immunoreactive neurons expressed mGluR5-like immunoreactivity. A majority (65%) of somatostatin-immunoreactive striatal interneurons expressed mGluR1a-like immunoreactivity with a slightly lower percentage (55%) expressing mGluR5-like immunoreactivity. These findings indicate considerable heterogeneity among striatal projection and interneurons with respect to mGluR1a and mGluR5 expression. There may be subpopulations of striatonigral and striatopallidal projection neurons. These results are consistent as well with prior data indicating subpopulations of the different classes of striatal interneurons.