Gender differences in mortality after myocardial infarction. Why women fare worse than men

Cardiol Clin. 1998 Feb;16(1):45-57. doi: 10.1016/s0733-8651(05)70383-0.


Several studies have indicated that women sustaining a myocardial infarction have a higher unadjusted short-term (i.e., in-hospital or 30-day) mortality than men. The advanced age of women at the time of presentation appears to be the major factor contributing to their worse prognosis relative to men. Controlling for age eliminates the association between female gender and increased mortality in most, but not all studies. This article reviews the data on age and other factors that might explain why women with a myocardial infarction fare worse then men.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adrenergic beta-Antagonists / therapeutic use
  • Age Factors
  • Aged
  • Aspirin / therapeutic use
  • Female
  • Fibrinolytic Agents / therapeutic use
  • Hospital Mortality
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Myocardial Infarction / drug therapy
  • Myocardial Infarction / mortality*
  • Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors / therapeutic use
  • Prognosis
  • Publication Bias
  • Sex Factors
  • Thrombolytic Therapy / statistics & numerical data
  • Time Factors


  • Adrenergic beta-Antagonists
  • Fibrinolytic Agents
  • Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors
  • Aspirin