Casodex (bicalutamide) 150-mg monotherapy compared with castration in patients with previously untreated nonmetastatic prostate cancer: results from two multicenter randomized trials at a median follow-up of 4 years

Urology. 1998 Mar;51(3):389-96. doi: 10.1016/s0090-4295(98)00004-1.


Objectives: To compare the efficacy, tolerability, and quality of life benefits of bicalutamide (Casodex) 150-mg/day monotherapy and castration in previously untreated nonmetastatic (M0) advanced prostate cancer.

Methods: A total of 480 patients with Stage T3/T4 nonmetastatic disease randomly received oral bicalutamide 150 mg/day or castration (either bilateral orchiectomy or goserelin acetate [Zoladex] 3.6 mg every 28 days) in a 2:1 ratio in two open multicenter studies (studies 306 and 307). The design of these studies was similar to allow a pooled analysis.

Results: In the combined survival analysis, at median follow-up of 202 and 205 weeks in studies 306 and 307, respectively, with 31% of the cases resulting in death, bicalutamide 150-mg monotherapy was statistically equivalent to castration; the risk of death from any cause was 7% less with bicalutamide than with castration (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.93). Data on time to treatment failure and objective progression could not be pooled, as results for these end points differed between the trials. In study 306, bicalutamide 150-mg monotherapy increased time to objective progression (HR = 0.58; P = 0.033) and treatment failure (HR = 0.66; P = 0.074), whereas in study 307, time to progression (HR = 1.35; P = 0.0471) and treatment failure (HR = 1.24; P = 0.097) favored castration. Bicalutamide therapy showed significant advantages over castration for both sexual interest (P = 0.029) and physical capacity (P = 0.046). Bicalutamide 150-mg monotherapy was well tolerated.

Conclusions: Bicalutamide 150-mg monotherapy provides a similar survival outcome to castration in previously untreated patients with nonmetastatic advanced prostate cancer and confers statistically significant benefits over castration with respect to sexual interest and physical capacity.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Comparative Study
  • Multicenter Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Androgen Antagonists / administration & dosage*
  • Anilides / administration & dosage*
  • Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use*
  • Castration*
  • Disease Progression
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Goserelin / therapeutic use*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Nitriles
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / mortality
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / therapy*
  • Quality of Life
  • Survival Rate
  • Time Factors
  • Tosyl Compounds


  • Androgen Antagonists
  • Anilides
  • Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal
  • Nitriles
  • Tosyl Compounds
  • Goserelin
  • bicalutamide