Changes in liver histopathology in women infected with hepatitis C through contaminated anti-D immunoglobulin injections in Ireland

Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1998 Jan;10(1):69-73. doi: 10.1097/00042737-199801000-00013.


Objective: To evaluate histological findings in untreated chronic hepatitis C patients at diagnosis 17 years after infection and to assess histological progression on repeat liver biopsy 2 years later.

Patients: Thirty patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), genotype 1b, by contaminated anti-D immunoglobulin in Ireland in 1977 were studied. These patients were diagnosed in 1994 for the first time. All patients were positive for HCV-RNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

Methods: Each patient underwent two liver biopsies approximately 2 years apart 17 and 19 years after initial infection. The liver biopsies were scored by two pathologists by the modified histological activity index using a numerical score. At first liver biopsy at time of presentation, eight patients had normal alanine aminotransferase (ALT), four had an ALT of more than 100 IU/I and 18 had an ALT level between 40 and 100 IU/I.

Results: In the initial (1994) biopsies, the median grade (inflammation) was 5/18, range 1-9 and the median stage (fibrosis) was 2/6, range 0-6. One patient showed cirrhosis (stage 6/6) and six patients (20%) had developed moderate fibrosis (stage 3-4/6). On the repeat biopsy, 2 years later, median grade (inflammation) was 5/18, range 2-9 and stage (fibrosis) was 1/6, range 0-6.

Conclusion: This group of patients, infected with HCV genotype 1b and untreated for 19 years, allows evaluation of the natural history of this virus. The majority of patients showed mild chronic hepatitis. Only one patient had developed cirrhosis. There was no significant histological disease progression between the two biopsy specimens over a 2 year period. The results suggest that the prognosis in such cases could at least be guardedly optimistic and that sequential liver biopsy may be performed less frequently.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Alanine Transaminase / blood
  • Disease Progression
  • Drug Contamination*
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Hepatitis C / transmission*
  • Hepatitis C, Chronic / blood
  • Hepatitis C, Chronic / etiology
  • Hepatitis C, Chronic / pathology*
  • Humans
  • Ireland / epidemiology
  • Liver / pathology*
  • Liver Cirrhosis / complications
  • Liver Cirrhosis / pathology
  • Middle Aged
  • Rho(D) Immune Globulin / adverse effects*


  • Rho(D) Immune Globulin
  • Alanine Transaminase